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Alloys

ALLOYS: 

Silver, Aluminum, Cu-Ni-Zn (Copper-Nickel-Zinc), German Silver, Nickel Silver, White Copper, etc.

Many alloy variants exist. This FAQ attempts to clear up some of the confusion that exists when the public uses the same name to refer to a family of different alloy combinations, each of which is designed to serve a different purpose.

Gold, when pure, is slightly reddish in color; alloys using other metals change this color substantially, producing hues of white, rose, green, purple, blue and black. Pure 100% gold is 24 karat by definition, so all colored golds are less than this, with the common being 18K (75%), 14K (58%), and 9K (38%). White gold, for example, is an alloy of gold and at least one white metal, usually nickel, manganese or palladium. Rose gold is an alloy of gold with copper, and sometimes also silver. For more information on what metal produces what color when alloyed with gold, please read Wiki's article Colored Gold at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colored_gold

 

 Ternary plot of approximate colours of Ag–Au–Cu alloys commonly used in jewellery making. - Wikimedia Commons

 

The term "sterling" refers to an alloy of silver that is 925 parts pure silver and 75 parts copper, thereby increasing the strength of the silver.

Copper CU alloys are metal alloys that have copper as their highest percentage component.The best known traditional copper alloy variants are bronze (tin is a significant percentage), brass (zinc is used instead of tin), and rose gold (an alloy using gold with copper).

Aluminium AL is almost always alloyed; the strength and durability of aluminium alloys vary widely depending on components, heat treatments, and manufacturing processes. According to Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. ( Lyle, J. P.; Granger, D. A.; Sanders, R. E. (2005). "Aluminum Alloys"), the main alloying agents are copper, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and silicon (e.g., duralumin) with the levels of other metals in a few percent by weight. Wikipedia's article on aluminum alloys states that the ancient Greeks and Romans used aluminium salts as dyeing mordants and as astringents for dressing wounds; alum is still used as a styptic.The common aluminium foils and beverage cans are alloys of 92% to 99% aluminium.

Pewter is an alloy; it was originally a mix, by weight, of four parts of tin to one part lead. Modern pewter blends this mix with other metals, such as tin, lead, zinc, bismuth, antimony, and copper.

The copper alloy Cupronickel, also known as copper-nickel is, according to Deutsches Kupfer-Institut ((Hrsg.): Kupfer-Nickel-Zink-Legierungen. Berlin 1980), also referred to as Hotel Silver, Plata Alemana (Spanish for "German silver"), German silver, and by the tradenames Alpaka, Alpacca, Argentan Minargent, and Cuivre Blanc (French for "white copper").

Cupronickel has a high copper content, also contains nickel and various strengthening elements such as iron and manganese, and is silver in colour. In silver-coloured modern-circulated coins, a typical mix is 75% copper, 25% nickel, plus a trace amount of manganese.

Cupronickel alloy variants are often used in marine hardware; constituents can be balanced to make this combination highly resistant to saltwater corrosion (except when sulfides or ammonia are present, then dosing with ferrous sulfate improves resistance). These variants range from 90% Cu–10% Ni to 70% Cu–30% Ni.

So called 'German Silver' contains no AG silver. "German silver" is the name for a particular silver-white alloy combination containing various proportions of CO copper, NI nickel, and ZN zinc depending on its' use. It was first made at Hildburghausen, Germany in the early 19th century.

The Ancient Chinese had been making a similar alloy for centuries, known as "white copper".

The Great Britain variant of this alloy is known as "Nickel Silver" and contains 19 parts NI nickel, 59 parts CO copper, and 22 parts ZN zinc.

These alloy variants of Cu-Ni-Zn (Copper-Nickel-Zinc) without AU silver, are harder and more durable than AU silver. The alloys "German Silver' and the Great Britain variant "Nickel Silver" are both harder than alloys containing AU silver, and will take a high polish; these alloys are used as a silver and silver alloy substitute to make many things, including but not limited to statues, bells, candlesticks, ornaments, utensils, needles, medals, medallions, as the base for expensive silver-plate tableware, and as unplated tableware.The first telephone exchanges built in 1879 used copper cables and Cu-Ni-Zn "nickel silver" switches, primarily because of that variant's resistance to corrosion and wear.

 

Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, Nickel,  Copper,  Zinc 

 

For more information on alloys, research 'transition metals' and their properties, and the Periodic Table, at the Library nearest you. 
 

 

 

We hope this information has been helpful to you!

 



All Content is © Debra Spencer, Suit Yourself™ International. Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved.
Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.

 

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All Content is ©2019 Debra Spencer, Appanage™at www.suityourself.international Suit Yourself ™ International, 120 Pendleton Point, Islesboro Island, Maine, 04848, USA 44n31 68w91 Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved. Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.

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All Content is ©2019 Debra Spencer, Appanage™at www.suityourself.international Suit Yourself ™ International, 120 Pendleton Point, Islesboro Island, Maine, 04848, USA 44n31 68w91 Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved. Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.
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